Zlatan Ibrahimović – Sports Psychology
· General Info
· Nationality, Birthplace, Parents
· Childhood What he wanted to do growing up?
· When did he start playing professionally?
· Which teams did he play for?
· Give some of his career statistics and maybe records?
· What trophies has he won with club football and national team of Sweden?
· Style of Play
· What is his personality like? How do people see him in the media?
Connect the following Sports Psychology Concepts (or even those not listed) to Zlatan Ibrahimović
What is his personality type? Type A, B C, or D? Give examples through research of where he shows this.
CATASTROPHE THEORY… OCCURS WHEN? WHAT DOES THE GRAPH LOOK LIKE
· Arousal: is a blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person and it refers to the intensity dimensions of motivation at a particular moment. It ranges from not aroused, to completely aroused, to highly aroused; this is when individuals are mentally and physically activated.
· Performance increases as arousal increases but when arousal gets too high performance dramatically decreases. This is usually caused by the performer becoming anxious and sometimes making wrong decisions. Catastrophes is caused by a combination of cognitive and somatic anxieties. Cognitive is the internal worries of not performing well while somatic is the physical effects of muscle tension/butterflies and fatigue through playing.
· The graph is an inverted U where the x line is the arousal and the y is the performance. Performance peaks on the top of the inverted U and the catastrophe happens in the fall of the inverted U
HIGH TRAIT ANXIETY ATHLETES… HOW DO THEY PERCEIVE COMPETITION?
· Anxiety: is a negative emotional state in which feelings of nervousness, worry and apprehension are associated with activation or arousal of the body
· Trait Anxiety: is a behavioral disposition to perceive as threatening circumstances that objectively may not be dangerous and to then respond with disproportionate state anxiety.
· Somatic Trait Anxiety: the degree to which one typically perceived heightened physical symptoms (muscle tension)
· Cognitive Trait Anxiety: the degree to which one typically worries or has self doubt
· Concentration Disruption: the degree to which one typically has concentration disruption during competition
People usually with high trait anxiety usually have more state anxiety in highly competitive evaluative situations than do people with lower trait anxiety. Example two athletes are playing basketball and both are physically and statistically the same both have to shoot a final free throw to win the game. Athlete A is more laid back which means his trait anxiety is lower and he doesn’t view the final shot as a overly threatening. Athlete B has a high trait anxiety and because of that he perceives the final shot as very threatening. This has an effect on his state anxiety much more than expected in this specific scenario.
HIGHLY SKILLED ATHLETES EXPERIENCE LESS STATE ANXIETY AND MORE CONFIDENCE
· State Anxiety: an emotional state characterized by subjective consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension accompanied by or associated with activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
· Cognitive State Anxiety: moment to moment changes in worries and negative thoughts
· Somatic State Anxiety: moment to moment changes in perceived physiological arousal
· Perceived Control State Anxiety: the degree to which one has the resources and ability to meet challenges
Example player playing basketball at the start of the game he or she may have a slightly elevated level of anxiety before tip off ( nervous feeling heart pumping), lower level once he/she settles into the pace of the game, and then an extremely high level in the closing minute of the game (feeling nervous with his/her heart racing)
HOW ATHLETES PERCEIVE THEIR ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE
· There is a direct relationship between a person’s level of trait anxiety and state anxiety. Research shows that the athletes who score high on trait anxiety measure a high state anxiety in competition. But this varies a highly trait anxious athlete may have a lot of experience in a particular situation and therefore not perceive it as a threat and have a high state anxiety.
COOPERATION AND ACHIEVEMENT
Achievement Motivation: Refers to a person’s efforts to master a task achieve excellence overcome obstacles perform better than other and take pride in exercising talent.
4 STAGE COMPETITIVE PROCESS/ OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS/ MOST IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION= SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE
1. The objective competitive situation
· The persons objective and goal is set
· Martens states that it is better studied when the objective is told to another person
Example Athlete A runs a mile in 8 min and his goal is to hit under 8 today this is competition because only you are aware of the standard of excellence you are striving to beat. Marthens run with a friend and tell him that his goal is to run under 8 min the situation would be competitive because your friend is aware of the criteria.
0. The subjective competitive situation
· How the person perceives, accepts, and appraises the objective competitive situation
Example Athlete A is looking forward in competing in the UEFA Champions League, whereas another athlete, Athlete B which is facing the same objective situation may not be looking forward to competing
0. The response
· If the decision is not to compete then the response stops there
· Response to compete can occur at the behavioral, physiological or psychological level or at all three levels
Example Behavioral what type of opponent you might want to fight with whether it’s a tough opponent, easy, or better than you. Physiological level heart starts to beat faster and your hands become cold and clammy. Psychological motivation confidence, can be internal or external.
0. The consequences of the response
· Are seen as either positive or negative
· The perception of the consequence is more important than the objective outcome
Example Athlete A loses the match the athlete might still perceive the outcome as positive if he played well and met his own standard of excellence.
SUBJECTIVE COMPETITIVE SITUATION STAGES AND ELEMENTS, EXAMPLE STAGE 2
· Involves how the person perceives accepts and appraises the objective competitive situation
· Stage 2 The Subjective Competitive situation Spoke about it already scroll up for definition and example
· Competitiveness is an enjoyment of competition and desire to strive for success in competitive sport setting
· Win orientation is a focus on interpersonal comparison and winning in competition
· Goal orientation: is a focus on personal performance standards
· Effects of environment and culture on gene expression
· Certain genetic behaviors will not emerge unless the right environment is present
SENSATION SEEKING BEHAVIOR
Sensation-seeking, also called excitement-seeking, is the tendency to pursue sensory pleasure and excitement.
· Easily bored if they do not get high levels of stimulation.
· Motivated by the immediate gratification that sensory experiences can provide.
· Tend to partake in risky behavior (drugs, extreme sports, reckless driving)
· Risk takers thus they experience more self-growth.
· Passion and persistence for long term goals
· Measure of motivation
· Mental toughness
UNDESIRED SIDE EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT
· Can be degreading or shame producing and these feelings have been linked to failure or weakness
· Because of punishment, athletes are afraid of failure. They are more concerned with not failing at a task than actually winning. These athletes perform more poorly and get injured more.
· Athletes may become demotivated if they are constantly punished and may quit the team.
· Are individuals have a tendency to enjoy activities for its own sake they are likely to experience flow states.
· Flow state is described below
HEXACO PERSONALITY MODEL
· Six dimensional model of human personality
. Honesty- Humility: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance
. Emotional Stability: Fearfulness, Sentimentalism, Anxiety, Dependence
. Extraversion: Sociability, Liveliness, Social Self-Esteem
. Agreeableness: Forgivingness, Gentleness, Patience, Flexibility
. Conscientiousness: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism
. Openness to Experience: Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality
GOAL ORIENTATION FOCUSES ON COMPARING ABILITIES & WINNING
· Compare performance with defeating others
TYPES OF PERFECTIONISM
· Self-oriented Perfectionism: Setting high personal standards and being strict when evaluating oneself to those standards.
· Socially Prescribed: The degree to which someone believes that a significant other holds them to very high standards and they need to meet those standards to seek approval.
· Other- oriented Perfectionism: The degree to which one holds others to extremely high standards.
VARSITY ATHLETES AND SUBSEQUENT LIFE OUTCOMES
· Varsity Athletes are shown to have a higher grade point average and higher educational aspirations than those who don’t participate on varsity teams
FEEDBACK AFTER FAILURE… EFFECTIVENESS
WHAT IS FLOW… DIMENSIONS?
· Intrinsic motivation and a balance in the individuals perceived abilities and the challenge of the task
· Examined activities such as rock climbing, dancing, chess, music and amateur athletics people do this with great intensity but usually get little or no external reward
· Dimensions to have flow balance of challenge and skills, complete absorption in the activity, clear goals, merging of action and awareness, total concentration on the task at hand etc
· Achieving Flow
· Motivation to perform
· Achieving optimal arousal level before performing
· Maintaining appropriate focus
· Precompetitive and competitive plans and preparation
· Optimal physical preparation and readiness
· Optimal environmental and situational conditions
· Confidence and mental attitude
· Team play interaction
· Feeling good about performance
MOST IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION… = SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS
PUNISHMENT CAN ACT AS A REINFORCER OR REWARDS
· Be consistent with everyone when giving out punishments.
· Punish behavior, not the person
· Do not punish athletes while they are playing
GROUP NORMS / WHAT ARE GROUP NORMS?
· Norm is a level of performance pattern of behavior or belief
· Norms can either be formally established or informally developed by a group
· Norms for productivity which is the standard the effort and the performance that is accepted by the team
· Positive norms set positive examples
TYPES OF ATTENTIONAL FOCUS…. NATURE OF FOCUS… BROAD, NARROW ETC
· Broad Attentional Focus: Perceive several occurrences simultaneously (i.e. soccer player paying attention to multiple defenders)
· Narrow Attentional Focus: When you respond to only one or two cues (golfer planning to hit the ball)
· External Attentional Focus: Directs attention outward to an object (watching the movement of the ball in basketball)
· Internal Attentional Focus: Directed inwards towards thoughts and feelings (coach analyzing plays in his head).
COOPERATION GENERALLY LEADS TO HIGHER LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT THAN INDIVIDUALISTIC
· Is the term psychologist use for the phenomenon in which individuals in a group or team put forth less than 100% effort because of losses in motivation (Lakers losing streak)
. Put less effort because they are in a group setting rather than working individually.
· Is seen when the individuals output cannot be independently evaluated, the task is perceived to be low or meaningful. The individuals personal involvement in the task is low, a comparison against group standards is not possible, the individual perceives his contributions are redundant
· Social loafing is contagious (Madrid team)
SELF-COMPETITION REFERS TO ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (PERFORMANCE IN SOCIALLY EVALUATIVE SITUATIONS REFERS TO COMPETITION)
· Tendency of individual members of the group to become less productive as the group size increases.
PENDULAR MODEL OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
2. Differentiation and Conflict
3. Resolution and Cohesion
4. Differentiation and Conflict
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
· Forming: team members familiarize themselves with other team members
· Storming: is characterized by resistance to the leader
· Norming: hostility is replaced by solidarity and cooperation
· Performing: band together team success
CYCLICAL APPROACH OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
· The main element in the cyclical approach to group development is the assumption that as the group develops it psychologically prepares for its own breakup (Ex. recreational team play for a season then break up)
DIFFERENT ROLES IN GROUPS, ROLE CONFLICT, AMBIGUITY, EXIT
-Role Conflict: Wearing too many different hats and having different people expect different things.
– Role Ambiguity: Not knowing the scope of one’s responsibilities. (Players with greater role ambiguity said they were less likely to return to the team next year)
NORM FOR PRODUCTIVITY = LEVEL OF TEAM PERFORMANCE ESTABLISHED BY TEAM AS ACCEPTABLE
LOW ACHIEVERS FOCUS ON SHAME, HIGH ACHIEVERS FOCUS ON PRIDE
TASK COHESION AND PERFORMANCE… DIFFERENT SPORTS
· The total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group
· Task cohesion refers to the degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals and objectives
· Conceptual Model for Cohesion
· Environmental factors: refer to the normative forces holding a group together (Ex. Players are under contract, athletes hold scholarships)
· Personal Factors: refer to the individual characteristics of group members three categories demographic (member similarity, sex), cognitions and motives(attributions for responsibility, anxiety), and behavior (social loafing)
· Leadership Factors: the leadership style and behaviors that professionals exhibit and the relationships they establish with their groups
· Team Factors: refer to group task characteristics, desire for group success (Ex. group that stayed together a long time also exhibit high levels of group cohesion.)
TASK AND SOCIAL COHESION AND PERFORMANCE
· Social cohesion reflects the interpersonal attraction among group members
· A belief or perception shared by members of the team about the capabilities of their teammates. In other words, a team member’s perception of whether or not the team is capable of achieving the desired result.
· Higher collective team efficacy resulted in better performance and lower levels of task anxiety, improved task engagement, and higher task satisfaction.
· Building up a team mentality towards being successful is more important than getting individual players to believe in themselves.
COMPETENCE MOTIVATION MODEL…. FEEDBACK & MOTIVATIONAL ATTRIBUTIONS INFLUENCE PERCEIVED COMPETENCES
· People are motivated to feel worthy or competent, and these feelings are primary determinants of motivation.
· If a soccer player feels they are skilled, they will have more interest in practicing. They will in turn become more happy and gain more enjoyment from playing. This will lead to increased motivation.
WAYS TO BUILD INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS
DON’T FEEL LIKE STUDYING? WHAT WOULD YOUR ATHLETE DO?
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ESP ORIENTATION…FOSTERING TEAM COHESION
ZAJONC’S SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY (PERFORMANCE ON WELL-LEARNED TASK IS FACILITATED BY AN AUDIENCE)
· Social Facilitation Theory: the improvement in individual performance when working with other people rather than alone
· Having an audience helps influenced performance
· An audience creates arousal in the performer which hurts performance when he or she does a difficult task that has not been learned or learned well and helps performance on well learned tasks
PRAISE FOR HIGH EFFORT PRODUCES… (MORE TASK PERSISTENCE, ENJOYMENT, ETC.)
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
· Receiver not paying attention to sender
· Receiver’s tendency to evaluate and judge communication.
· Lack of trust between individuals attempting to communicate.
· Misinterpretation between sender and receiver.
· Tendency to tell people what they want to hear.
· Belief that silence is safer
· Inconsistency between action and words
INTERVIEWS WITH OLYMPIC ATHLETES AND MENTAL STRATEGIES
· Skills behaviors that athletes use for competition and their relationship to performance success
· Practicing specific plans for dealing with adversity
· Practice routines for dealing with unusual circumstances
· Concentrate on performance
· Mental rehearsal
· Don’t worry about other competitors
· Develop a competition plan
· Regulate arousal and anxiety
ICEBERG PROFILE, WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?
· Iceberg profile in elite athletes shows vigor above the mean population and depression, tension, anger, fatigue, and confusion below the mean of population. Negative traits are below the surface while positive traits are above the surface.
· Successful athletes have a iceberg profile. Unsuccessful athletes usually have a flat profile.
VARSITY AND NON VARSITY ATHLETES HAVE SIMILAR SUCCESS IN THEIR CAREERS
TEAM CLIMATE = PERCEPTIONS OF TEAM MEMBER INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
· Team climate develops from how players perceive the interrelationships among group members
· Social support provides appraisal information reassurance and companionship reduces uncertainty during times of stress
· Proximity people are more likely to bond when they are near each other
· Fairness trust
· Similarity attitudes aspirations
MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES VS. NONATHLETES
PERSONALITY PROFILES OF ATHLETES VS. NONATHLETES
EXERCISE LEVELS AND SELF-CONCEPT… SELF-ESTEEM
MOST DIFFICULT TASK OF STRUCTURING SPORT & EXERCISE ENVIRONMENTS
APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
· Motivation: the direction and intensity of one’s effort
· Trait Centred View: contends that motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristic (Ex. when the coach tells the athlete he has a real winner mentality)
· Situation Centered View: contends that motivation level is determined primarily by situation (Brittany may be motivated by her aerobic class but unmotivated when it comes to a competitive sport situation)
· Interactional View: motivation results neither solely from participant factors (personality needs interests and goals) nor solely from situational factors ( coaches or teachers style or the win-loss record of a team)
WHAT IS SELF-COMPETITION?
· To compete with oneself and seek constant self- improvement and growth.
WHAT IS ATTRIBUTION THEORY?
· Based on how people explain their success and failures. Attributing success or failure to the following 3 categories.
. Stability: Stable (talent) or unstable (luck)
. Locus of Causality: Internal (I ran faster near the end of the race) or External (opponents were not fit enough)
. Locus of Control: I can control my stamina but not the stamina of my opponents.
HIGH VS. LOW ACHIEVERS AND EMOTIONAL FACTORS
· High achievers strive to do the best they can. Low achievers try and avoid failure.
. Setting challenging goals versus setting easy to achieve goals.
MASTERY AND OUTCOME GOAL ORIENTATION
· Mastery Goal Orientation: Focus is on improving oneself through comparison of relative past performances.
· Outcome Goal Orientation: Focusing on comparing oneself with and defeating others.
ZONES OF OPTIMAL STATE ANXIETY
· Athletes have a zone in which top performance occurs. Outside this zone, poor performance occurs.
· This model states that athletes can perform good at different levels of anxiety and there isn’t one particular level where optimal performances is produced.
· A particular emotion can be positive for one individual and negative for another individual.
· Event Importance: The more important the event, the more stress provoking it is.
. An event that is insignificant to most people can be very significant to someone else.
· Uncertainty: The greater the uncertainty, the greater the stress.
BIOFEEDBACK AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ORIENTATION
· Psychophysiological Orientation: believe that the best way to study behavior during sport and exercise is to examine the physiological processes of the brain and their influences on physical activity
· Psychologists typically assess heart rate, brain wave activity and muscle action potentials, determining relationships
· Biofeedback technique to learn to control some of your body’s functions such as your heart rate
· Social psychological orientation: sport and exercise psychologists assume that behavior is determined by a complex interaction between the environment and the personal makeup of the athlete or exerciser
· Cognitive Behavioral Orientation: psychology assumes that behavior is determined by both the environment and cognition thought and interpretation play an especially important role
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