Transtutors Week five June 16, 2019 Use the APA format to support all the answers, with a minimum of 5 scholarly resources. Answer questions 2, 3, 4, 8, and 8 from Chapter 13, Exercises, pp. 360 On Key Concepts, from Jackson and Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora. The Title of the book is: Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 4th edition. These are the questions listed numbers 1 to 5 in this attachment, plus other questions on part one and part two in this attachment. Part one of the assignment answers even numbered questions of chapter 13, page 360, of Jackson (2012), plus six more questions. Part two of the assignment answers six questions. The question in both part one and part two are list as follows. Part One A psychology professor is interested in whether implementing weekly quizzes improves student learning. She decides to use the weekly quizzes in one section of her introductory psychology class and not to use them in another section of the same course. Which type of quasi-experimental design do you recommend for this study? If the psychology professor in above question had access to only one section of introductory psychology, describe how she might use a single group design to assess the effectiveness of weekly quizzes. Which of the three single group designs would you recommend? Identify some possible confounds in each of the studies you outlined in your answers to question 1 and 2 above. Give the reasons a researcher might choose to use a single-case design. How does a multiple-baseline design differ from a reversal design? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of quasi-experiments? What is the fundamental weakness of a quasi-experimental design? Why is it a weakness? Does its weakness always matter? If you randomly assign participants to groups, can you assume the groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study? At the end? Why or why not? If you cannot assume equivalence at either end, what can you do? Please explain. Explain and give examples of how the particular outcomes of a study can suggest if a particular threat is likely to have been present. Describe each of the following types of designs, explain its logic, and why the design does or does not address the selection threats discussed in Chapter 10 of Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016): a. Non-equivalent control group pretest only b. Non-equivalent control group pretest/posttest c. Cross-sectional d. Regression-Discontinuity Why are quasi-experimental designs used more often than experimental designs? One conclusion you might reach (hint) after completing the readings for this assignment is that there are no bad designs, only bad design choices (and implementations). State a research question for which a single-group post-test only design can yield relatively unambiguous findings Part Two – Answer the following questions: What research question(s) does the study address? What is Goldberg’s rationale for the study? Was the study designed to contribute to theory? Do the results of the study contribute to theory? For both questions: If so, how? If not, why not? What constructs does the study address? How are they operationalized? What are the independent and dependent variables in the study? Name the type of design the researchers used. What internal and external validity threats did the researchers address in their design? How did they address them? Are there threats they did not address? If so, how does the failure to address the threats affect the researchers’ interpretations of their findings? Are Goldberg’s conclusions convincing? Why or why not?