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which individual article/topic do you feel was the most important in regards to the law enforcement executive?

Forum Assignment for the Week: 500 Words minimum for each question For this week’s Forum, respond to the following:  

1. From the required reading list, which individual article/topic do you feel was the most important in regards to the law enforcement executive? Be sure to address the legal, administrative and operational perspectives in your response.


Topic chosen for this week:

Officer Health (Stress, Fatigue, PTSD, etc)


General Instructions Applicable to All Forums:

enlightened Please note that the questions are comprehensive, requiring the base knowledge presented in the text before applying the analytical and critical evaluation necessary to meet program goals.

You must respond to each individual question on the forum board. The required individual response for EACH question is 500words with citations and two references in APA format . Failure to respond with an individual response of 500 words of your original work to a particular question and/or citations and two references in APA format will result in the student NOT earning maximum credit for that response. While 500 words of your original work is the MINIMUM acceptable response length, there is no maximum word limit. So you are aware, the classroom software utilized by AMU, SAKAI, automatically provides faculty with the word count in each individual response.

Copying of published material, which is plagiarism, is prohibited and any instances of it, including forum posts, will result in a zero score without an option for re-submission to recoup lost points and a report sent to the Registrar’s Office per University policy.


Discussion forum posts will be graded on verbal expression, critical thinking, making an effort to not just participate in but contribute to the dialog with initial and reply posts of a substantive nature commensurate with graduate level studies. Posts must have correct grammatical construction, spelling, and punctuation with no texting or other casual style language.

Reading and Resources

Lesson 1 – The Police Part 1

Avdija, A. S. (2010). The role of the police behavior in predicting citizens attitudes toward the

police. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 6(2), 76-90. Retrieved from

Kohfeld, C. W., & Sprague, J. (1990).  Demography, police behavior, and deterrence. Criminology, 28(1),

111-136. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1990.tb01320.x

Lombardo, R., & Lough, T. (2007). Community policing: Broken windows, community building, and

satisfaction with the police. Police Journal, 80(2), 117-140. doi:10.1350/pojo.2007.80.2.117

Ortega, A., Brenner, S., & Leather, P. (2007). Occupational stress, coping and personality in the police: an

SEM study. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 9(1), 36-50.


Worden, R. E., & Brandl, S. G. (1990). Protocols analysis of police decision-making: Toward a theory of

police behavior. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 14(2), 297-318.



· Week 1: The Police – Part 1 Lesson

“Governments will always play a huge part in solving big problems. They set public policy and are uniquely able to provide the resources to make sure solutions reach everyone who needs them. They also fund basic research, which is a crucial component of the innovation that improves life for everyone.”…..Bill Gates


By 1984, researchers had already published the definitive works on law enforcement response time to calls for service. With the release of The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment in 1977 and the 1984 publishing of “Calling the Police: Citizen Reporting of Serious Crime” researchers’ focus indicate a redirection away from this topic. When these studies which were perceived as “definitive” on the topic appeared in the research literature, further published research on this topic effectively ceased (E. Paoline, personal communication, October 31, 2005). A search for peer reviewed literature on the subject confirmed Paoline’s observation. However, while researchers appear to have abandoned the topic, law enforcement administrators did not. Administrators implemented new technologies with the goal of having positive impacts on service provision to their communities. These new technologies, as well as practices such as community policing, demand researchers reopen the topic of law enforcement response times to calls for service to determine if administrators are meeting their intended goals.

Response time, for the purposes of this project, is operationalized as the amount of time between when an officer received a call from dispatch and the time when the unit contacted the involved citizen. This time difference is displayed in the Figure 1 as the difference between T5 to T6. Studies by Kelling, Pate, Dieckman and Brown (1974) and Spelman and Brown (1984) also focused on this area of response time, the difference between T5 to T6.


Figure 1 – Call for Service Timeline

Crime or Incident Occurs   Citizen Discovers Crime or Incident   Citizen Decides to Report Crime or Incident   Citizen Calls Dispatch for an Officer   Dispatch Notifies Officer to Respond to the Call   Officer Arrives to Meet with Citizen
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6


T2 to T3 has been referred to as when “dark figure of crime” can emerge. The “dark figure of crime” refers to the two thirds of all crime that occur and are not reported to law enforcement (Stephens, 2003). Reasons provided for not reporting crime included the perception that nothing would be done, the victim minimizing the incident so that reporting is not worth the effort, and the perception that the victim may receive further retaliation from the offender (Stephens).

The T3 to T4 time period has been an area of technology growth. Prior to the implementation of 9-1-1 systems, contact with law enforcement agencies occurred through individual seven digit phone numbers for each law enforcement agency in the U.S. As discussed in detail later in this work, the proliferation of cellular phones in the U.S. has created an atmosphere of instantaneous contact with law enforcement (Cellular Technology Information Association, 2005). These two technological advancements, 9-1-1 and cellular technology, had a positive impact in reducing officer response to an incident by reducing the time period of T3 to T4 (National Emergency Number Association, 2005; Cellular Technology Information Association, 2005).

When measuring citizen satisfaction with response time, as explored by Percy (1980) and the International City/County Management Association [ICMA] (1997), the time taken into consideration included time spent reporting the incident to dispatch (T4) combined with patrol unit response time (T6). Law enforcement administrators who are searching for new ways to positively impact their communities need to reexamine this topic. Researchers must reopen law enforcement response times to calls for service as a topic of exploration.


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