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“Run over the dog backwards, so he’ll be okay.”

(2 points) Synaptic pruning is the process by which

neurons seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers

the two brain hemispheres lateralize during early childhood

neural fibers become myelinated as a result of stimulation of the brain

new synaptic connections are formed by environmental stimulation

2 (2 points) Donnie and Vinny are playing with similar objects in the same room, without looking at one another at all. They are engaging in _____ play.

nonsocial

parallel

cooperative

associative

3 (2 points) Robert was upset when his family car hit a dog. Although the dog was OK and ran away, Robert insisted that his father go back and “Run over the dog backwards, so he’ll be okay.” Although incorrect in this assumption, Robert is displaying

egocentric thought

idiosyncratic reasoning

hierarchical classification

reversibility of thought

4 (2 points) Understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even though their outward appearance has changed is

egocentrism

object permanence

animism

conservation

5 (2 points) Which of the developmental trends matches most closely with the maturation rates of the two hemispheres of the brain?

spatial skills develop very rapidly in early childhood

control over the arms develops before control over the feet

children show a strong hand preference from birth

language skills develop very rapidly in early childhood

6 (2 points) A major factor that determines what foods children will prefer is

their genetic preference for very salty foods

repeated exposure to a food

direct pressure to eat a particular type of food

their genetic preference for very sweet foods

7 (2 points) When parents have difficulty controlling their own anger adn hostility, their children tend to

be more empathic

be fearful and shy

have problems regulating emotion

have higher IQs

8 (2 points) A set of attitudes, abilities, and values that define an individual are known as

identification

the self-concept

self-knowledge

individuation

9 (2 points) While Jesse plays, his mother comments and encourages him without giving direct instructions. This form of supportive communication is known as

bootstrapping

discovery learning

guided participation

scaffolding

10 (2 points) Which of the following statements about sex differences in aggression is true?

As soon as children become aware of gender stereotypes, overt aggression drops off for boys

Preschool and school-age girls are just as aggressive than boys

Girls are more likely to engage in overt aggression

Boys are more likely to engage in relational aggression

11 (2 points) ____ hormone and ____ hormone are pituitary hormones that affect children’s growth

luteinizing; thyroid-stimulating

growth; melanocyte-stimulating

growth; thyroid-stimulating

luteinizing; melanocyte-stimulating

12 (2 points) Researchers at a child-care center observed children who had been physically abused. Compared to their nonabused peers, abused children were more likely to ____ when another child was in distress

be more empathic

seek the help of an adult

cry

respond with anger

13 (2 points) Christine frequently plays alone with puzzles, crayons, and construction materials. It is likely that Christine is

cognitively but not socially delayed

bright and socially competent

cognitively and socially delayed

socially delayed but bright

14 (2 points) Natascha wants to design a play environment that will enhance the make-believe play of her preschoolers. WHich of the following things should she do?

Offer a wide variety of realistic materials as well as materials without a clear function

Limit the amount of space and play materials so that the children will not be distracted from themake-believe task

Allow the children to resolve their own disagreements without adult interference

Select the topic for play and then direct the children’s activities

15 (2 points) Children who spend more time in sociodramatic play are

at risk for social rejection

less socially competent

advanced in cognitive development

more physically skilled than their agemates

16 (2 points) Young Fletcher notices a four-legged creature and calls it a ‘dog’, ignoring the telltale facial features and stripes that indicate the creature is a tiger. Fletcher is demonstrating

irreversibility

centration

conservation

perception bound thought

17 (2 points) The best way of estimating a child’s physical maturity is to use

skeletal age

weight

height

head circumference

18 (2 points) According to Piaget, which of the following would have the greatest impact on mental representation for a child in the preoperational stage?

playing with a ball

asking a parent to get a ball

dreaming about a ball

looking at a ball

19 (2 points) On the average, 2- and 3- year-olds need ____ hours of sleep and 4- to 6- year-olds need _____ hours

10 to 11; 8 to 9

14 to 15; 10 to 11

14 to 15; 8 to 9

12 to 13; 10 to 11

20 (2 points) Piaget used the term _______ to describe mental representations of actions that obey logical rules

organization

operations

function

programs

21 (2 points) During early childhood, on the average, children grow about _____ inches and gain about ______ pounds each year.

3 to 4; 10

1 to 2; 10

4 to 5 5

2 to 3; 5

22 (2 points) According to Vygotsky, children speak to themselves

because they are lonely

for the pleasure of hearing their own voice

because they are egocentric

for self-guidance

23 (2 points) Myelination of the ____ throughout early childhood and into adolescence contributes to improvements in sustained, controlled attention

cerebellum

reticular formation

frontal lobe

parietal lobe

24 (2 points) A decline in appetite during the preschool years

suggests a pituitary hormone disorder

occurs because growth has slowed

is an early sign of deprivation dwarfism

indicates a deficiency of thyroxine

25 (2 points) Right-handed children are more likely than left-handed children to

be weakly lateralized

develop outstanding verbal and mathematical skills

lie turned toward the left during the prenatal period

be ambidextrous

26 (2 points) _______ refers to the judgements we make bout our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements

emotional self-regulation

Self-concept

self-esteem

self-consciousness

27 (2 points) In comparing Piaget’s and vygotsky’s theories,

Piaget’s theory paid more attention to the development of basic cognitive processes

Vygotsky, but not Piaget, attempted to understand the significance of children’s private speech

Vygotsky placed more emphasis on skills such as categorization and problem-solving

Piaget’s theory pointed out the importance of children’s communication with caregivers

28 (2 points) Which of the following is 3-year-old Leah most likely to believe is alive?

the kitchen table

a rock

a crayon

a train

29 (2 points) Neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget’s stage approach with an emphasis on

ethology

behavioral theory

information processing

psychoanalytic thought

30 (2 points) ______ has/have been shown to strengthen attention, memory, logical reasoning, language, imagination, and creativity

Fine motor tasks

Make-believe play

Animistic thinking

Sensorimotor activity

31 (2 points) The original inspiration for the cognitive-developmental approach to morality was the

ethological theorists

work of Piaget

information-processing theory of cognition

belief that moral development is a lifelong process

32 (2 points) Which of these influences has the strongest effect on the age at which children lose their primary teeth?

Prolonged malnutrition

Oral hygiene

Environmental pollution

Breast- versus bottle- feeding

33 (2 points) At what point are helpful and generous models most influential on children’s prosocial behavior?

toddlerhood

during the early elementary years

infancy

during the preschool years

34 (2 points) Seth’s parents make sure to provide him with lots of rich, real-world experiences and restrict his television viewing to one hour of “Sesame Street” per week. Which of the following statements about Seth is probably accurate?

Seth has limites social knowledge to incorporate into fantasy play

Seth’s parents are limiting his ability to engage in fantasy play

Seth’s fantasy play will contain many violent themes

Seth’s fantasy play involves very little aggressive behavior

35 (2 points) An overproduction of ____ during early childhood supports the plasticity of the brain

dendrites

axons

synapses

glial cells

36 (2 points) In Freud’s theory, a young girl identifies with her mother by

doing new activities with her mother

rejecting her father altogether

feeling that her mother loves her unconditionally

taking on her mother’s characteristics, including morals and gender-role standards

37 (2 points) According to Piaget, the preoperational stage begins at _____ and ends at _____

2 years; 7 years

7 years; 10 years

4 years; 6 years

birth; 4 years

38 (2 points) X-rays of ______ permit doctors to estimate children’s progress toward physical maturity

growth cells

epiiphyses

fontannels

cartilage cells

39 (2 points) Which of the following is supported by research on sleep?

About half of preschoolers experience frequent difficulty falling and staying asleep

Most children begin having night mares during toddlerhood

Bedtime rituals become less important to children during the preschool years than they wre dureing toddlerhood

In some cultures, daytime napping persists throughtou adulthood

40 (2 points) Parents use ______ with boys than girls

fewer time outs

less physical discipline and more “reasoning”

more consistent discipline

harsher discipline

41 (2 points) The make-believe play with others that first appears between 2 and 3 years is called

sociodramatic play

parallel play

egocentric play

animistic play

42 (2 points) Sean and Jordan are playing in the sandbox. Sean says, “Use the wet sand for the castle. No, the blocks will be best. Were are the blocks?” Jordan is playing with a truck at the other end of the sandbox. According to Piaget, Sean’s speech is

communicative

adaptive

egocentric

private

43 (2 points) When 4-year-old Nicholas sees a tree blowing in the wind, he says, “Look! The tree is waving at!” Nicholas is demonstrating

dual representation

centration

animistic thinking

conservation

44 (2 points) Cross-cultural research demonstrates that growth norms

vary within a culture and vary by socioeconomic status

vary by culture

are not good standards against which to judge health problems for children in nonindustrialized countries

are universal

45 (2 points) Children and adults who exhibit either masculine or androgynous characteristics

are maladjusted

are extremely rare

are higher in self-esteem

possess neither feminine nor masculine characteristics

46 (2 points) A major change in represrntation that increases steadily from 4 to 8 years of age is

the appearance of self-directed sociodramatic play

directing pretend actions toward other objects

the awareness that make-believe is a representational activity

the use of less realistic toys in make-believe play

47 (2 points) The gland located at the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth is the ____ gland

thyroid

ciliary

adrenal

pituitary

48 (2 points) Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for children

are less violent than adult shows

have no effect on aggression, since children do not understand them

contain more acts of violence than any other type of program

actually decrease aggression by providing an acceptable emotional outlet

49 (2 points) As children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage,

the use of objects in play become more functinal and realistic

thinking becomes related to logical rules

make-believe play dimishes

symbolic mental activity increases

50 (2 points) According to Erikson, _____ is a means through which preschools can try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure

play

daydreaming

having a temper tantrum

displaying sympathy

51 (2 points) The _____ is a structure at the rear and base of the brain that aids in balance and control of body movement

spinal cord

cerebral cortex

corpus callosum

cerebellum

52 (2 points) By age 7, American low-SES children are, on the average,

About 1 inch shorter than the average for middle-SES children

Much more variable in size compared to middle-SES children

No different in size than their middle-SES agemates

Comparable to low-SES children in other industrialized countries


“Run over the dog backwards, so he’ll be okay.” was first posted on July 15, 2019 at 12:25 pm.
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