Total exam is worth 40 points.
Multiple Choice (1 point each)
1. Qualitative interviewing seeks in-depth information using _____________ questions.
A. Indexes based on many closed-ended
B. Closed-ended, systematically unstructured
C. Open-ended, flexible
D. Many systematically structured
2. A juvenile court is assessing the impact of a diversion program. This diversion program limits the use of secure confinement and increases the use of informal sanctions for minor delinquents. The evaluation shows that keeping minor delinquents out of secure confinement would not increase the crime rate. The crime rate would remain the same because there are very few juveniles who would be eligible to participate in the diversion program. A citizen who is concerned about wasting financial resources argues that before conducting an evaluation of impact, the researcher should have conducted an evaluation (assessment) of:
3. Field research is a data collection method that involves the ________of phenomena in their natural settings.
A. Direct observation
B. Written records
C. Grounded theory
D. Accurate measures
4. Which of the following best describes a researcher who is a complete participant in a field study?
A. A college professor who talks to elderly victims of crime to study coping mechanisms
B. A college student who sits near conversing students at a local high school to study juvenile delinquency
C. A former drug addict studying drug use at TAMU-SA
D. A researcher who takes a job within a corrupt police department without anyone’s knowledge
5. To gain access to a formal criminal justice organization for the purpose of conducting field research, which of the following steps would be best?
A. Find an informant and then send a letter to gain access
B. Find a sponsor, send a letter, follow up with a phone call and then set up a meeting
C. Telephone the agency and speak with the director and set up a meeting
D. Field research cannot be done in formal criminal justice organizations, only use of written records is allowed
6. Dr. Jones is having his Introductory to Criminal Justice students analyze cartoons. He instructs them to identify the number of violent acts per show, the type of violent act and the characteristics of the victim. Dr. Jones is having his students use _____.
A. Content analysis
B. Secondary analysis
C. New data collected by agency staff
D. Non-public agency records
7. FBI statistics in the UCR and reports from the Federal Bureau of Prisons are examples of ___.
A. Non-public agency records
B. Experimental data
C. Published agency records
D. Content analysis
8. One of the most important parts of conducting evaluation research is ____.
A. Selecting a sample that will support the program goals
B. Formulating goal statements that are empirically testable
C. Gathering official documents
D. Making sure that the staff of the agency where you conduct research like you by doing anything to get them on your side
9. In comparison to surveys and experiments, field research has:
A. High validity and high reliability
B. High validity and low reliability
C. Low validity and high reliability
D. Low validity and low reliability
10. All of the following would be examples of goal statements that must be clarified before empirical testing can follow, except ______.
A. School resource officers will create a safe environment in schools
B. Participants will be equipped with the life skills necessary to succeed
C. Participants will be able to obtain their GED upon completion of the program
D. Provide participants with problem-solving skills
11. Reactivity occurs when:
A. The values of the dependent variable change as the values of the independent variable change
B. Subjects of social research change their behavior because they are being watched
C. A researcher generates theory from her/his observations
D. A researcher conducts comparative historical research
12. Which unit of analysis is best studied using a content analysis?
C. Social artifact
D. Social interaction
13. When evaluating a program, why is it important to conduct both an impact assessment and a process evaluation (6 points)?
14. Compare and contrast the following roles: complete observer, complete participant, and participant observer. Discuss a topic you could study through field research and explain which of the three previous approaches would be best and why (6 points).
15. What is the difference between manifest and latent coding? Discuss a topic you could study by conducting a content analysis and come up with one thing that you would measure via manifest coding and one thing you would measure via latent coding (6 points)
16. Rosenfeld, Deckard, and Blackburn (2014) conducted a nine-month randomized experiment of hot-spot policing in St. Louis, Missouri. There were two experimental groups and one control group in the experiment. Each is described below.
· Experimental Group 1: “Officers were told to patrol slowly through the area and to refrain from engaging in self-initiated activities unless a crime was in progress or unless officer or citizen safety was at risk” (Rosenfeld et al., 2014, p. 433).
· Experimental Group 2: Officers were “told to engage in one or more self-initiated activities while in a hot spot. These activities include arrest, pedestrian checks, building checks, occupied vehicle checks, unoccupied vehicle checks, foot patrol, and problem solving” (Rosenfeld et al., 2014, p. 433).
· Control Group: Officers were given no special instructions.
A total of 32 hot-spots were examined in this study. Hot-spots were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions described above. The goal of this experiment was to reduce firearm assaults and robberies.
1. Design an impact assessment for the program described above. What are some things that could be evaluated during the process evaluation (10 points)?