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Psychology Questions – Smart Essays

CIRCLE OR HIGHLIGHT the correct answer for the following questions; then after each, you will be asked to provide a rationale for your answer, an explanation, or example. DO NOT LEAVE ANY BLANK LINE ON THE TEST UNANSWERED.

In questions 1 through 5, MATCH each of the following research methods (a-e) with the statement which best describes it. Write the concept in the space next to the statement:

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a. naturalistic observation d. case study

b. laboratory observation e. survey

c. correlational study

1. This method allows researchers to gather self-report data from a representative sample of the population. ______________________________

Please provide your own example of this method in a scientific, psychological study. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method in a study of your choosing:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

2. This method involves determining the strength of relationship between two variables, though cause and effect cannot be determined. _________________________________

Please provide an example of this method in your own scientific, psychological study. In one paragraph, explain what variables you might utilize to determine strength of relationships:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

3. This method allows researchers to observe behaviors while maintaining control of the environment. ________________________________

Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

4. This method involves collecting extensive data on one person of interest. __________________

Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method and what one person you might collect data on:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

5. This method allows researchers to observe behaviors that are more natural or spontaneous.

_____________________________

Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method and what natural or spontaneous behaviors you would watch for:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

MATCH each of the following perspectives with the statement below which best describes it. Write it in the space below the statement. Then there is a paragraph to complete at the end of #11. Please do not leave it blank.

a. Humanistic b. Psychoanalytic c. Cognitive d. Behaviorism

6. This perspective focused on mental processes, such as decision-making and memory.

_____________________________________

7. This perspective believes people are basically “good” and driven to reach their full potential.

_____________________________________

8. Freud focused on the unconscious mind and on early childhood experiences.

_____________________________________

9. Researchers like Watson and Skinner believed psychologists should focus on observable, measureable behaviors.

_____________________________________In one robust paragraph, using all four of the perspectives above, describe a situation for each one in which each of these schools of thought might be necessary and appropriate over the others.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________10. The Central Nervous System (CNS) in humans is comprised of two structures:the brain and peripheral nervesthe sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systemsthe autonomic and peripheral nervesspinal cord and peripheral nervesthe brain and spinal cordDescribe in your own words (from your own schemata), the function of each of these structures:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________11. _______________ are branch-shaped structures on a neuron that receive incoming signals from other neurons.Axons c. Glial cellsDendrites d. ReceptorsFrom where did these signals originate, and where are they headed? What is their ultimate function?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________MATCH each of the following NEUROTRANSMITTERS with the statement which best describes it. Place the name of the neurotransmitter in the blank next to the statement. Then there is a paragraph after #18 to complete. PLEASE DO NOT LEAVE IT BLANK:Serotonin c. GABADopamine d. Norepinephrinee. Acetylcholine12. it is involved in memory and movement; its deficiency is linked to Alzheimer’s disease_______________________________________13. an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in sleep regulation and mood; its deficiency has been linked to depression, suicide, and impulsive violence_______________________________________14. it inhibits involuntary muscle movements and has been linked to both Parkinson’s disease andSchizophrenia_______________________________________15. it activates the sympathetic nervous system and influences arousal; its involved in the brain’s reward centers and may be depleted by repeated cocaine usage_______________________________________16. an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces anxiety and seizure disorders_______________________________________In one robust paragraph, utilizing all five of these neurotransmitters, describe what stimulus or stressor might elicit the production of each of these neurotransmitters.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________17. In the brain stem, what is the function of the RETICULAR FORMATION?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________If we were to place an electrode on the reticular formation of a rat and provide him or her an electric shock to this area, what might the rat experience?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________18. Choose one of the INFANT REFLEXES outlined in Ch. 3. In one paragraph, describe for me what is occurring in the reflex you chose. Why is a newborn baby equipped with this reflex? How long does it last? Draw me a mental picture of what the baby exhibits:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________REM sleep may be characterized bya. decreased adrenaline. d. more frequent and vivid dreams.b. decreased brain activity. e. slow & regular heart rate.c. sleepwalking.You chose one correct answer. In which stages do each of these other four phenomenon occur?i) ____________________________________________________________________________________ii) ___________________________________________________________________________________iii) ____________________________________________________________________________________iv)_________________________________________________________________________________20. Sleepwalking is most likely to occur during ________ sleep.a. REM d. stage 3b. stage 1 e. stage 4c. stage 2Sleep terrors are most likely to occur during ________ sleep.a. REM d. stage 3b. stage 1 e. stage 4c. stage 2What is sleepwalking? What phenomenon is occurring?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What are night terrors? What phenomenon is occurring? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________21. Individuals who experience periods of time during the night when their breathing stops may be diagnosed witha. narcolepsy. c. insomnia.b. sleep apnea. d. somniloquy.What is the treatment for this? Is it curable? Explain these answers in your own words: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________22. According to Freud, dreams area. continuations of the mental processes occurring when the person falls asleep.b. an expression of our unconscious desires and needs.c. not very meaningful.d. combinations of random neural signals.What do YOU think dreams are? Explain in your own words: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________23. The three functions of memory (not memory storage) in sequence are:a. short-term memory, long-term memory, and retrieval.b. encoding, storage, and retrieval.c. encoding, retrieval, and forgetting.d. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.Explain each function in your own words:A)_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________C)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________24. Lacey can remember how to ride a bike and how to drive a car. These are examples ofa. procedural memory. c. episodic memory.b. implicit memory. d. semantic memory.Why can’t Lacey remember the information on her vocabulary test last week? Tell me in your own words: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________25. Ramone watched an episode of American Idol and saw 12 singers perform. Later his wife asked about the performers, and he could only remember the last 3 singers who performed. This is an example ofa. a flashbulb memory. c. the primacy effect.b. episodic memory. d. the recency effect.What if he had remembered one of the earlier singers because she reminded him of an old girlfriend? What kind of memory would that have been? Explain: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________29. Using the information from your SLEEP LOG, your textbook, your PPT notes, and our discussion in class, describe for me, in one very brief paragraph, what you learned about YOURSELF with regard to the following concepts: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, LARK OR OWL, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, DREAMS, SLEEP STAGES, SLEEP CYCLES, ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MEMORIES, AND LEARNING.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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