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Proposal Paper And Annotated Bibliography



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Research Proposal Paper Annotated Bibliography


Liberty University


This annotated bibliography will present ten sources for research on the relationship between the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and social media use and how that might change within different personality types in adolescents. This research topic allows room for research to be needed for several different aspects. These sources will attempt to cover all areas needed to provide a proper research proposal. These sources addresses the specifics of FoMO and how to measure it, personality types from the Big Five Assessment and how it correlates with emotions that relate to FoMO, and the heightened use of social media within adolescents. The bibliography consists of a description and summary of the article, an evaluation, a critique, qualifications of the authors, contribution to existing literature, and a critique of all assessments used within each study.


1) Abel, J. P., Buff, C. L., & Burr, S. A. (2016). Social media and the fear of missing out: Scale

development and assessment. Journal of Business & Economics Research

(Online), 14(1), 33. Retrieved from


Abel, Buff, and Burr used a sample of 232 millennials, with the majority being college students. They used extant scales for inadequacy, irritability, anxiety, and self-esteem to create a measure of FoMO (Fear of Missing out). These scales were taken from the Feelings of Inadequacy Scale by Janis and Field, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger et al. and the Irritability Questionnaire by Craig, Hietana, Markova, and Berrios, as well as the Self-Esteem Scale by Rosenberg. This all came together in a 37 item Likert type scale survey and was shared through email and social media outlets.

This information created a scale to measure FOMO and how it affects decision making when it comes to the fear of missing out on an opportunity. This also provides a deeper understanding of the relationship of FOMO and social media use, which can directly correlate into self-esteem related issues, especially among adolescents.

This study provided a vast amount of relevant research that was needed to expand on the topic of FoMO due to the increase of it in the past few years. With a hypothesis set to develop a valid measure of FoMO, this goal was met. The components were thorough and detailed which provided a high reliability. However, the sampling was vague with how the researches went about collecting the sample of millennials and if it was random or convenient.

Jessica Abel is an Associate Brand Manager at Beech-Nut Nutrition and applies her research to marketing for millennials in her management position and is working on her MBA at Union College. Cheryl Buff, Ph.D, is the Associate Dean of the School of Business at Siena College and has authored articles in the realm of consumer behavior, branding, social media, etc. Sarah Burr is a research analyst and is a graduate from Siena College with a marketing degree and a minor in psychology.

This article contributes to existing literature by taking what is previously understood about FoMO and applying a method of measuring it since one had not existed. FoMO had been researched to an extent with particular variables but this study adds more details for an accurate measuring technique.

The assessments used were scales to use as starting points to create a survey in order to measure FoMO. However, to test the reliability, The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value that was used was .783 exceeding the usual value of .6. However, the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity did hold statistical significance.

2) Beyens, I., Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). “I don’t want to miss a thing”: Adolescents’

fear of missing out and its relationship to adolescents’ social needs, Facebook use, and

Facebook related stress. Computers in Human Behavior,64, 1-8.

Beyens, Fison, and Eggermont used a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of 402 high school students in Belgium. They surveyed the students using the Need to Belong Scale (NTBS), the popularity scale of Sator et al (2000), the Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs), the Facebook Intensity Scale, and a perceived stress related to Facebook use scale.

This research is extremely pertinent and relevant to fear of missing out in relation to social media exposure. The study sought to increase knowledge and understanding of how the basic social needs of adolescents are related to Facebook use (which, in turn could start more research on every social media networking site). By providing more understanding, this helps research to see how the fear of missing out relates to the inner social needs and anxieties of adolescents that expose self esteem issues.

The research analyzed four hypotheses. H1 was “Adolescents’ need to belong is positively associated with adolescents’ Facebook use,” H2 was “adolescents’ need for popularity is positively associated with adolescents’ Facebook use,” H3 was “adolescents’ fear of missing out (FoMO) mediates the relationships of need to belong and need for popularity with Facebook use,” H4 was “adolescents’ fear of missing out (FoMO) is positively associated with perceived stress related to Facebook use” (Beyens, Frison, Eggermont, 2016). The detailed thought and research holds strong validity throughout. A need for improvement would be to include research on all forms of social media as opposed to limiting it to Facebook only. Also the cross-sectional study design is limiting; a longitudinal study would be more affective for measuring FoMO.

Ine Beyens is a PhD student at the Leuven School for Mass Communication Research and specializes in the uses and effects of screen media among children and adolescents. Eline Frison is also a PhD student at the Leven School for Mass Communication Research. Steven Eggermont, PhD is the director of the Leuven School for Mass Communication Research and program director of Communication Sciences at the University Leuven. Comment by Lucy Phillips: great work discussing the authors and their qualifications.

This source contributes to the existing literature as previous studies have researched the correlation between fear of missing out and heightened stress but not in terms of Facebook specifically. This helps foster the continued discussion on social media’s effects on FoMO. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Nice job identifying how this article extended previous findings

The NTBS was straightforward and reliable with a Cronbach’s a=0.83. Confirmed factor analysis indicated that the construct validity of the scale was good. The need for popularity assessment also had a strong Cronbach’s a=0.91 and the factor analysis also indicated a good construct validity. The FoMOs is a reliable test that has been used in several research studies and has proven to be reliable and valid and is obviously able to be replicated. The psychometric properties are sound. The Facebook Intensity Scale shoed good reliability as well with Cronbach’s a=0.78. The perceived stress related to Facebook use scale that was developed for the study was very interesting and proved to show good reliability as far as psychometric properties go. The Cronbach’s a=0.82, however I would do multiple tests of this scale considering its newly created purpose for the present study. Comment by Lucy Phillips: nice work including the reliability here. Make sure to use the greek letter α instead here. For more info on writing out the statistics, take a look at the APA Publication Manual sections 4.44 and 4.45. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Good work describing the construct validity Comment by Lucy Phillips: you could probably shorten this up and just say something like: The Perceived Stress Related to Facebook Use Scale developed for this study demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.82). Comment by Lucy Phillips: Good point, what might you do differently if you were testing it again to ensure that it is valid and reliable?

3)Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2016). Fear of missing out, need for Comment by Knight, Anita (Ctr for Counseling & Family Studies): I am amazed at how many current studies you found! Comment by Lucy Phillips: nice work finding a current study!

touch, anxiety and depression are related to problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior,63, 509-516. Comment by Lucy Phillips: doi:

Elhai, Leveine, Dvorak, and Hall used a convenience sample and recruited participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (Mturk), which is an online, labor market used in social science research. The populations were English-speaking North Americans and they utilized a Smartphone Usage scale, the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), a Need for Touch scale, the FoMOs scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the Behavioral Activation Scale for Depression-Short Form (BADS), and the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Comment by Lucy Phillips: Nice work describing the sampling method

The research showed that FoMO is the variable most related to problematic smartphone use. The authors found that FoMO does not necessarily mean high smartphone use versus low smartphone use but instead, it analyzes problematic smartphone use versus nonproblematic smartphone use. This information is relevant to my research because it shows that smartphone use (and the use of social media on smartphones) contributes to FoMO in a very problematic sense. This noted problem is needed to analyze how problematic FoMO is in adolescents specifically. Comment by Lucy Phillips: nice work tying this article into your research question.

The researchers used a convenience sample using an online labor market, however a random sample could have been more accurately valid. This would allow for higher validity as far as honesty goes due to the fact that participants wouldn’t be sought after. Additionally, a longitudinal study would be more effective to measure smartphone addiction and reactions of FoMO overtime. The study had 9 hypotheses, which is mentionable and helpful but also gives a lot of information that makes it hard to have detailed and accurate responses. The research would be even more helpful if it was more specific. Comment by Lucy Phillips: good job identifying weaknesses of the study. What were some of the strengths that you noticed?

Jon D. Elhai, Ph.D. is a Professor at the University of Toledo in the Departments of psychology and specializes in research in PTSD. Jason C. Levine, Ph.D. is also an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Toledo. Robert D Dvorak, Ph.D. is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at North Dakota State University. Brian J. Hall, Ph.D., is a Research Associate at the Department of Health, Behavior, and Society at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

All of the findings by Elhai et al. supported prior research on the importance of FoMO as it correlates with the overuse of technology in smartphones and social media. It simply expands upon that knowledge in areas like individuals also have a need for touch that they can find in smartphones and technology. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Good job here

All tests given by the research team had satisfactory-good coefficients ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 and were discussed as having significant validity throughout. For further research, re-testing the Smartphone Usage scale would be helpful since it was created specifically for the present study. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Thanks for including these. You might want to be more specific here though (e.g., the Chronbach’s α, which is a measure of internal consistency, in these assessments was between …)

4)Kong, F., & You, X. (2013). L oneliness and Self-Esteem as Mediators Between Social Support Comment by Lucy Phillips: Not in italics and only first letter of title is capitalized Comment by Knight, Anita (Ctr for Counseling & Family Studies): Will you be using self-esteem as a variable? If so, you can use the Rosenberg scale that we used in class.

and Life Satisfaction in Late Adolescence,1(110), 271-279. Retrieved February 6, 2017. Comment by Lucy Phillips: This should say: Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 271-271. doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9930-6

Kong and You used a convenience sample of 389 undergraduate students from two universities in China to complete questionnaires that took around 20 minutes to complete. The instruments used were the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale (SELS), the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale (CSSRS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comment by Lucy Phillips: nice summary of the sampling method and measures used. What is the research design that they used?

In this study, the hypothesis is confirmed that self-esteem is a mediator between social support and well-being. High social support correlates with high self esteem, which then lowers loneliness and leads to higher life satisfaction. This research makes it possible to see how loneliness correlates with self-esteem. If an adolescent is feeling lonely and looks to social media for affirmation and, instead, develops FoMO, it can be predicted that self-esteem will decrease. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Nice work walking through the mediation model. These can be tough to understand.

While this study is specific to Chinese students in late adolescents, the assessments were generally specific to a wider population. The research done was extremely reliable because of this and the latent variables were all significant. This study had a cross-sectional structure but a longitudinal method would be more effective to see these traits develop over time. A method to make it more generalizable to different cultures would also enhance the reliability of the research even more. Comment by Lucy Phillips: I wonder if there are any cultural differences regarding FOMO? Or is it pretty similar across cultures? Comment by Lucy Phillips: I think you might be talking about external validity here? Comment by Lucy Phillips: Nice work identifying research design Comment by Lucy Phillips: Again, I think you’re talking external validity here

Feng Kong is a PhD candidate in the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and learning at Beijing Normal University in China. HE is the co-author of approximately 30 scientific papers. Xuqun You (PhD) is a professor at Shaanxi Normal University and specializes in emotion and social psychology. Comment by Lucy Phillips: great job looking into other research that he has done. What else is he studying that could be helpful in your research project?

As far as contributing to existing literature, previous literature has had conflicting conclusions on whether loneliness is a predication of self-esteem and vice versa. Some research sees a positive correlation, however others found that self-esteem was a mediator between narcissism and other psychological health issues. This current study added more dimensions to add to loneliness and self esteem in search of life satisfaction. Overall, the results contribute to the mixed findings by adding more consistency and reliability.

The SWLS had a Cronbach a=0.78, which shows good reliability and reported overall good psychometric properties. The SELS had a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.67, which proved to have less of a reliable psychometric property system but overall was still useful. The CSSRS was widely used by the Chinese population and proved to have a good validity and reliability as it was used in the past. The RSES has been used several times throughout research in the past and the psychometric properties have proven to be reliable with a Cronbach a=0.83. Comment by Lucy Phillips: α Comment by Lucy Phillips: you might want to rephrase this (e.g., which indicates lower internal consistency).

5)Oberst, U., Wegmann, E., Stodt, B., Brand, M., & Chamarro, A. (2017). Negative consequences Comment by Lucy Phillips: Great work finding a really recent article!

from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing

out. Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating Comment by Lucy Phillips: The journal title (not article title) would go here

role of fear of missing out ,55, 51-60.

Oberst, Wegmann, Stodt, Brand, and Chamarro surveyed 5,280 random social media users from several different Spanish-speaking Latin-American Countries who responded to a questionnaire online and the participants selected for study were under 17. The final sample had 1468 social media users in the ages of 16 and 18. These participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity Scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Comment by Knight, Anita (Ctr for Counseling & Family Studies): Nice work finding a large random sample! Comment by Lucy Phillips: Wow, that’s a big sample size!

This research indicates that the role of FOMO is strong in the case of developing negative consequences through the use of Social Networking Sites, especially in adolescents who have psychopathological problems. This will make a case to analyze different personality types on top of psychopathological problems and how it correlates with FOMO involved with social media in adolescents. Additionally, the study found that depression in girls results in higher SNS (social networking site) involvement and for boys, anxiety results in higher SNS involvement, which, shows a need to examine gender more closely in this research. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Nice work connecting your research topic with this article.

All necessary information was included in this journal article to have full reliability and consistency within the research. However, I would be interested to see this applied to different samples from different cultures. American society is obsessed with social media and it has a clear affect on today’s youth so a more culturally diverse sample would be ideal. The use of self-reporting data was subjective to biases based on how the participant wants to be viewed. Overall, this study holds excellent starting points for more research in terms of the use of Social Networking Sites. Comment by Lucy Phillips: Good point, self-report data is not always representative of the person completing the measures

Ursula Oberst (Ph.D.) is a full professor of psychology at Universitat Ramon Llull (Barcelona) and a General Sanitary Psychology and Family Counselor. Elisa Wegmann and Benjamin Stodt are research assistants at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany. Matthias Brand is the head of the department of Psychology at the University of Duisburg-Essen as well.

This study contributes to existing literature by building on other studies that analyze the correlation of psychopathology and Internet addictions while providing a new topic of interest. Several amounts of research have been done in the area of social media but not on the increase of FOMO as a result. FOMO due to observations made on social media could lead to diminished sense-of-self which displays how this study ultimately contributes to self-esteem literature.

The HADS was used and the depression subscale was low in this study but has proven reliable in past validation studies so the data was still seen as applicable by the authors, however this reliability issue should have been questioned further. The FOMO scale was used with a 5-point-Likert scale and was proven reliable and used in mediation between other assessments. SNI proved to be psychometrically sound and useful in this particular study. The measure of the amount of visits to social networking sites and questions such as that are necessary to this study.

The post Proposal Paper And Annotated Bibliography appeared first on Smart Essays.

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