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Opinion Module

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Re:Topic 8 DQ 2

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Reflect on three of the articles you have chosen for the literature review assignment. How will these articles help you proceed from here?

Bashir, G. M., Khan, H. U., & Fournier-Bonilla, S. D. (2016). Applying adragogy theory to an adult multicultural audience: How cultural factors influence the capacity for adults to learn information technology concepts in the classroom environment.Preceedings for the Northeast Regional Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), (pp. 1-15).

I found the research by Bashir, Khan, & Fournier-Bonilla (2016) especially interesting as it really spoke about to the diversity aspect of college campuses today.  Diversity is in the form of gender, age, socioeconomic, and geographic.  Traditioanl pedagogy methods do not work with all learners and facutly are being faced iwht teaching adults using an adragogy theory.  This article does continue on to talk about training needs of full-time faculty, however doesn’t address the adjunct population.  This article is definitely one that I am going to continue to research, it also had a tremendous amount of sources that I can use. 

Lopes-Murphy, S. A. (2014). Experiences in postsecondary education that may lead to cultural intelligence: Exploring and proposing practices. International Jounral of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 26(2), 287-296.

Lopes-Murphy (2014) was a very interesting article for me as it was one of several that actually identified a gap that I could use to further explore my topic of cultural intelligence’s impact on engagement, specifically in regard to university faculty. This article stated that on seven percent of BA graduates meet the entry levels of cultural intelligence.  The gap is that they believe that the faculty may have something to do with it, and that faculty members need to know their CQ levels as well.  It also suggests that CQ needs to be evaluated across all departments, majors, and delivery methods.  This article really was the article that I needed to find.  I will continue to search for newer research studies that have referenced this author to see if there are any new additional places and studies that I need to review.

  Elkhouly, S. M., & Amer, M. G. (2013). Examining the relationship between cultural intelligence and conflict resolution styles in the industrial sector in Egypt. Competition Forum, 11(2), 140-153.

In this article Elkhouly & Amer (2013) conducted research on Egyptian and English leaders and suggested that while gender did not have any effect on cultural intelligence levels that language skills did.  What they suggested in that universities use foreign language teachers to teach cultural intelligence courses. Part of my study was going to compare teaching delivery model (online, hybrid, or land based) as well as major to see if there were any differnce among CQ levels. The concern that I have is that I am spreading my research out in too many ways, so I need to narrow it down. 

References:

Bashir, G. M., Khan, H. U., & Fournier-Bonilla, S. D. (2016). Applying adragogy theory to an adult multicultural audience: How cultural factors influence the capacity for adults to learn information technology concepts in the classroom environment.Preceedings for the Northeast Regional Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), (pp. 1-15).

 Lopes-Murphy, S. A. (2014). Experiences in postsecondary education that may lead to cultural intelligence: Exploring and proposing practices. International Jounral of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 26(2), 287-296.

Elkhouly, S. M., & Amer, M. G. (2013). Examining the relationship between cultural intelligence and conflict resolution styles in the industrial sector in Egypt. Competition Forum, 11(2), 140-153.

1 posts

Re:Topic 8 DQ 1

Qualitative researchers can use questionnaires to collect data. Suppose a qualitative researcher is interested in the behaviors of physicians that have high ratings of patient satisfaction. The research goal is to identify the behaviors of successful physicians so that these behaviors can be built into the curricula of medical preparation programs. The researcher undertakes a case study and uses three instruments to gather data.

1. First, the researcher gives a likert-scale questionnaire to patients of a select group of physicians to determine the perceived behaviors that lend to higher levels of satisfaction.

2. Second, the researcher reviews video recordings of physician-patient encounters from 10 physicians who have been rated highly by patients in a reliable satisfaction survey.

3. Third, the researcher interviews patients to glean more detail about physical behaviors that improve patient satisfaction.

How might these data be analyzed separately and then triangulated as the researcher presents the results?

The likert scale data could be analyzed to determine which behaviors the patients valued. For instance, they may have valued the physician’s genuinely, sincerity, or candidness. They may have also valued the physician’s ability or willingness to explain conditions and their options to the patients. The responses to the likert scale questions would yield valuable information about the patient’s perspective that could be used. The video recording could be coded to capture the physician’s actions and the patient’s reactions. For instance, did the physician explain the condition or the prescribed medications to the patent or did they simply give administration instructions. How did the patient respond to the encounter? Did they nod in acknowledgement, did they ask clarifying questions, did they scowl? These behavioral clues would give valuable information about how the physician and the patient value the encounter. The interviews would also give valuable information about the patient’s perspective. The results could be coded and the researcher could look for themes.

All of these sources should be analyzed separately and then triangulated to determine if they come to the same conclusion. In this case, Carter, Bryant-Lukosius, DiCenso, Blythe and Neville (2014) note that this would be considered method triangulation because the researcher used different methods to collect the data before combining it. To operationalize triangulation, Creswell (2014) recommends “examining evidence from the sources and using it to build a coherent justification for themes” (p. 201). For instance, looking at the results from each method to determine if openness is present. If openness is present in all three data sources, then it would justify its inclusion as a theme. Combining the results from different methods would give a fuller picture of the phenomenon in question, in this case behaviors of successful physicians (Virginia, 2014).

Carter, N., Bryant-Lukosius, D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., & Neville, A. J. (2014). The Use of triangulation in qualitative research. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(5), 545-547. doi:10.1188/14.ONF.545-547

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Virginia, W. (2014). Research methods: Triangulation. Evidence Based Library And Information Practice, Vol 9, Iss 1, Pp 74-75 (2014), (1), 74.

1 posts

Re:Topic 8 DQ 1

Qualitative researchers can use questionnaires to collect data. Suppose a qualitative researcher is interested in the behaviors of physicians that have high ratings of patient satisfaction. The research goal is to identify the behaviors of successful physicians so that these behaviors can be built into the curricula of medical preparation programs. The researcher undertakes a case study and uses three instruments to gather data.

1. First, the researcher gives a likert-scale questionnaire to patients of a select group of physicians to determine the perceived behaviors that lend to higher levels of satisfaction.

2. Second, the researcher reviews video recordings of physician-patient encounters from 10 physicians who have been rated highly by patients in a reliable satisfaction survey.

3. Third, the researcher interviews patients to glean more detail about physical behaviors that improve patient satisfaction.

How might these data be analyzed separately and then triangulated as the researcher presents the results?

Each of these methods focus on a very different part of the research process, and will therefore yield different results.  The nice thing about this is that it will be looking at many different angles of the doctor-patient relationship, which will answer questions regarding what it takes to be a physician that develops a good relationship with patients and has high levels of patient satisfaction.  Researchers have found that the use of triangulation is extremely helpful in medical research, because it can bring clarity to the results (Tonkin-Crine et al, 2016). 

For this particular instance, examining the likert-scale results can bring insight into what behaviors that the doctors portrayed or failed to portray brought higher results among the patients surveyed.  Video recordings could be coded for many things, including observed body language and behaviors of both patients and doctors of those who scored highly on the likert-scale surveys.  Personal interviews of the patients can clarify some of the ratings and discover the reasoning behind certain ratings, what was most valuable to the patient within the interaction, and how they felt about certain behaviors.  Using triangulation to compare and combine all results would be an effective method for adding to the understanding of what factors lead to good relationships between patients and physicians, and what things educational programs can implement in order to better prepare doctors for work in the field. 

Tonkin-Crine, S., Anthierens, S., Hood, K., Yardley, L., Cals, J. L., Francis, N. A., & … GRACE INTRO/CHAMP, c. (2016). Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation. Implementation Science111-8. doi:10.1186/s13012-016-0436-0

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