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Identify three contributors to the development of biopsychology.

Psych 301, Biological Bases of Behavior, Common Exam, Version A 

Section: Multiple ChoiceThere are 50 multiple choice questions (50 points). Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.   Use Answer Sheet Document to enter answers 
1.  Which of the following statements is consistent with how a behavioral neuroscientist (physiological psychologist, biopsychologist) would solve the mind-body problem? 
 AThe mind is a product produced by the operations of the nervous system.
 BThe body can influence the mind through the actions of the pineal gland.
 CThe mind is spiritual, while the body is made from matter.
 DThe mind can exist apart from the body
 EThe body is physical, but the mind is not.
2.  The key property of addictive drugs relates to
 Atheir ability to inhibit dopamine in brain.
 Bthe withdrawal that follows termination of the drug.
 Ctheir reinforcing effects.
 Dtheir capacity to produce tolerance.
 Etheir ability to rapidly produce physical dependence.
3.  Behavioral Neuroscience (Biopsychology, Physiological Psychology) emphasizes that
 Asuccess in the neurosciences depends on cooperation among its many disciplines.
 Bthe discipline of neuroscience mostly focuses on the relation between the nervous system and behavior.
 Cit comprises several subdivisions, each of which favors a different research approach.
 Dfailure to follow the basic principles of scientific inquiry can lead to potentially dangerous conclusions
 Eall of the above.
4.  Which is NOT an important principle of the study devoted to the biological bases of behavior (behavioral neuroscience, psychobiology, physiological psychology): 
 AThe Nervous System controls and responds to body functions and directs behavior
 BNervous System structure and function are determined by both genes and environment throughout life
 CEvery behavior can be explained solely by reference to the brain
 DThe brain Is the foundation of the mind making learning, memory, language and other processes possible
 EResearch leads to understanding that is essential for development of therapies for Nervous System disorders
5.  The main reason why Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it
 Ainvolves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage.
 Bcan easily be studied in humans.
 Cinvolves readily accessible neocortical circuits
 Doccurs only in mammals.
 Ecan be induced by both electrical and chemical stimulation.
6.  Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
 Achanges in respiration.
 Bthe quality and quantity of dreams.
 Cchanges in the electrical activity of the brain.
 Dchanges in consciousness.
7.  A person is asked to take part in an experiment that is examining brain areas associated with changes in verb generation and mathematical problem solving. Which of these techniques are the experimenters likely to use
 AComputed Tomography
 BMagnetic Resonance Imaging
 DFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 EDiffusion Tensor Imaging
8.  Which of the following is NOTan advantage for using non-human animals in biopsychological research:
 ABrains of animals are less complex
 BThere are fewer ethical constraints on nonhuman animal research
 CModels of several species makes comparative research possible
 DThey can not provide information about any human cognitive process
9.  Study of the function of the living human brain is difficult for all the following reasons,EXCEPT
 A it is unethical to induce brain damage in humans for the purpose of research.
 Bbrain damage is rarely the same from case to case.
 Cit is difficult to obtain the brain of a person who has suffered brain damage.
 Dresearchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human to verify the location of the brain damage.
 Ea damaged brain gives us little information about brain structure and function in the living brain.
10.  EEG recordings of human brain activity provide all the following information,EXCEPT
 Amonitoring brain function during brain surgery.
 Bdiagnosis of epilepsy.
 Cstudy of sleep cycles.
 Dstudy of wakefulness.
 Epure view of neural activity.
11.  The key rationale for lesion studies is that
 Athe change in behavior that follows a brain lesion can give important clues about a function of an ablated brain area.
 Blesions are simple to create within the brain.
 Cbrain lesions are specific for fibers of passage.
 Dbrain lesions reliably produce marked and observable changes in behaviors.
 Emost lesions are temporary.
12.  One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
 Bstereotaxic surgery.
 Dexperimental ablation.
 Ethe study of twins.
13.  Sensitization, an increased behavioral effect of drug with repeated administration, has been demonstrated quite frequently after repeated administration of __________
14.  Studies have shown which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere?
 Athe processing of tactile information
 Bthe comprehension of emotions
 Cthe capacity to recognize the emotional content of hand gestures
 Dthe ability to communicate using language
 Ethe ability to read and write
15.  Facial expressions of many emotions appear to be universal. Children as young as 6 months are even capable of discriminating these emotional expressions. What area of the brain is thought to be responsible for the recognition of emotional facial expressions, particularly the negative emotions like fear?
 Athe hypothalamus
 Bthe amygdala
 Cthe occipital lobe
 Dthe hippocampus
 Ethe thalamus
16.  Research has shown that the capacity of some human couples to pair bond may reflect the activity of
 Aoxytocin and dopamine.
 Bglutamate and glycine.
 Cdopamine and vasopressin.
 Dvasopressin and oxytocin.
 Eacetylcholine and norepinephrine.
17.  Research has shown that the drug ________ releases serotonin and has been used to treat ________.
 Afluoxetine; depression
 Bfenfluramine; obesity
 Camphetamine; obesity
 Dreserpine; obesity
 Efluoxetine; mania
18.  Twin studies indicate that
 Athere is a genetic basis for homosexuality in males as well as in females.
 Bearly family environment is more important than genes for the development of homosexuality.
 Ca male child whose older twin sisters are heterosexual is more likely to be homosexual.
 Dhomosexual women are likely to have homosexual male relatives.
 Eidentical male twins are less likely to be concordant for homosexuality than are fraternal male twins.
19.  René Descartes would be most comfortable with which of the following statements?
 AThe universe is a mental construction.
 BThe body is a hallucination generated by the mind.
 CThe body is made of matter; the mind is not.
 DEverything is made of matter and energy.
 EReflexes are noted in humans, but not in animals.
20.  Activation of the ________ elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses.
 Anucleus accumbens
 Bcentral nucleus of the amygdala
 Corbitofrontal cortex
 Dmedial geniculate nucleus
 Eposterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus
21.  Which statement about sleep is false?
 AREM sleep patterns are similar in all species.
 BSleep is a useful behavior.
 CEveryone dreams.
 DAll vertebrates show sleep
 EMammals and birds show signs of REM sleep 
22.  L-DOPA is a standard treatment for
 DParkinson’s disease.
 Eanorexia nervosa.
23.  Damage to which dopaminergic (DA) system would be expected to produce muscle tremors, limb rigidity, and difficulty in movement control
 Anigrostriatal DA system
 Bhypothalamocortical DA system
 Cmesocortical DA system
 Dnesolimbic DA system
 Ecorticospinal DA system
24.  A person who is admitted to a hospital emergency room with an opiate overdose is likely to be treated with
 Dmu opioid receptor agonists.
 Ekappa opioid receptor agonists.
25.  Research studies indicate which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning?
26.  Based on the study of Patient H.M., it has been concluded that
 Ashort-term memories are stored within the hippocampus.
 Bthe hippocampus is required for retrieval of long-term memories.
 Clong-term memories are stored within the hippocampus.
 Dthe hippocampus converts short-term memories into long-term memories.
 Edamage to the hippocampus results in severe retrograde amnesia.
27.  Which of the following is true of learning?
 ALearning and memory are synonymous.
 BMemories are related to the electrical activity of the brain.
 CLearning involves the modification of the nervous system by experiences.
 DExperiences are stored in the brain in separate folders, like those of a filing cabinet.
 ELearning is possible in the absence of memory.
28.  The distinction between implicit (nondeclarative) and explicit (declarative) memories is that
 Aimplicit memories are rapidly forgotten.
 Bexplicit memories are unavailable to consciousness.
 Cwe are unable to talk about implicit memories.
 Dhippocampal damage impairs implicit, but not explicit memory.
 Epatients with anterograde amnesia generally have problems with implicit memory
29.  Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere in that
 Amost language problems are noted after damage to the right rather than the left hemisphere.
 Bmost language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than the right hemisphere.
 Cright-handed persons are more likely to have their language center located within the right hemisphere.
 Delectrical stimulation of the left hemisphere has a smaller effect on language than does similar stimulation of the right hemisphere.
 Emost persons show a greater movement of the lips on the right side of their mouth during speech.
30.  Imagine that you are suffering from overly intense emotional reactions that conventional therapies do not alleviate. Based on the evidence cited in your text, which brain region would be considered as a target for ablation to provide relief for your intense emotional reactions?
 Acentral nucleus of the amygdala
 Bventromedial hypothalamus
 Cmedial nucleus of the amygdala
 Dcorpus callosum
 Ethe hypothalamic complex
31.  Johannes Müller, one of the first scientists to advocate the use of experimental techniques in physiology, proposed
 Aan important role for natural selection in the evolution of behavior.
 Bthat language is a function of the right hemisphere.
 Cthat sensations depend on the particular sensory system activated.
 Dthat the pineal body interconnects the body with the mind.
 Ethat the amygdala controls thought and emotion.
32.  Based on his observation of brain damage and behavioral difficulties in a stroke victim, Paul Broca concluded that:
 Athe control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere.
 Bthe right hemisphere controls motor movements on the right side of the body.
 Cdamage to the right hemisphere impairs speech.
 Ddifferent regions of the brain control heart rate and breathing, purposeful movements, and sensory function.
 Emuscle atrophy after a stroke results from a loss of fluid pressure within the brain ventricles.
33.  Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in
 Aspeech perception
 Bemotional experience.
 Cunderstanding social rules.
 Dmotor movements.
 Eemotional memories.
34.  Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of 5-HIAA, a metabolite of serotonin, in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information?
 AMale classmates with low 5-HIAA levels will be more aggressive than those with high levels.
 BLow 5-HIAA levels will be associated with good exam performance.
 CHigh 5-HIAA levels will be associated with poor sleep patterns in males.
 DMale classmates with high 5-HIAA levels may not be alive 10 years from now.
 EThose with low 5-HIAA levels will be the thinnest persons in the class.
35.  A female rat is ovariectomized and then injected with testosterone immediately after birth. In adulthood, this rat is injected with estradiol and progesterone and placed in a cage with a male rat. This female rat will
 Ashow evidence of maternal aggression.
 Battempt to mount the male.
 Cshow lordosis to the male rat.
 Dnot show female sexual behaviors.
 Eshow behavioral masculinization.
36.  Which of the following supports the notion that heredity contributes to differences in body weight?
 APima Indians in the US and Mexico share the same genes, but only those persons who live in a particular environment develop obesity.
 BSeveral forms of human obesity involve a deficit in ghrelin production, which can be treated by ghrelin injection.
 CTwin studies indicate that genes account for 25 percent of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet.
 DTwin studies indicate that genes account for little of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet.
 EAdoption studies fail to show a role for heredity in obesity.
37.  The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by research in which
 Ablind children show different facial emotional expressions than do sighted persons.
 Bfacial expressions of emotion vary by culture.
 Cthe same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures.
 Dfacial expressions of emotion change over time in a culture.
 Epeople who live in isolated cultures show very different facial expressions from people who are not
38.  All of the following statements about the genetic basis of schizophrenia are trueEXCEPT that
 Aadoption studies indicate a biological basis for schizophrenia.
 Bthe concordance rate for schizophrenia is higher for monozygotic than for dizygotic twins.
 Ca person with a “schizophrenia gene” will always develop schizophrenia.
 Dseveral genes may be involved in schizophrenia.
 Egenes impart a susceptibility to develop schizophrenia.
39.  Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that
 Aalcoholism and smoking are independent diseases.
 Balcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors.
 Csmokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking.
 Dalcoholics are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking.
 Eenvironment plays a minimal role in drug abuse.
40.  Which of the following is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a behavior
 ADizygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.
 BMonozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins.
 CHeterozygotic twins have a lower concordance rate than do monozygotic twins
 DAdopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait.
 ENone of the above are correct.
41.  Synaptic plasticity (i.e., changes in the structure or biochemistry of synapses that alters postsynaptic receptors) has been demonstrated most frequently in which psychological phenomena:
42.  Experience stimulates the production of ____________ to produce brain plasticity in the form of enduring structural changes
 Cneurotrophic factors
43.  The process of neurogenesis (i.e., the creation of new neurons in the brain) has been described most frequently in which brain region:
 Anucleus accumbens
 Ereticular formation
44.  The role of neural reorganization in recovery of function after brain damage can be described as
 Acontroversial, but it is assumed to play some role.
 Brecently well-understood.
 Cwell-understood only in lower mammals
 Eincorrect and has been rejected
45.  The development of new neurons in adult brains can be described by the following EXCEPT:
 Aadult brains are capable of major adaptation.
 Badult brains are not as plastic as developing brains.
 Cadult brains are set in their own ways.
 Dnew neurons created in adult brains can be integrated into existing neural circuits
 Enew neurons created in adult brains can be influenced by the environment or behavior of the organism
46.  An effective treatment for unipolar depression involves
 Alithium salts.
 Belectroconvulsive shock therapy.
 Cdrugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or norepinephrine.
 Dsleep deprivation.
 Edrugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAOi).
47.  Fluoxetine (Prozac) is an effective treatment for ________ that works by ________.
 Aschizophrenia; blocking dopamine receptors
 Bdepression and obsessive-compulsive disorder; blocking serotonin reuptake
 Cnxiety disorders; inhibition of MAO
 Ddelusions and hallucinations; blocking serotonin reuptake
 Eobsessive-compulsive disorder; releasing glycine
48.  Which of the following supports the contention that schizophrenia is associated with brain damage?
 AThe size of the lateral ventricles decreases in schizophrenic patients.
 BThe size of the lateral ventricles increases in schizophrenic patients.
 CThe neurological symptoms noted in schizophrenia are unique to this disorder.
 DControl subjects are more likely to show neurological symptoms.
 EOlder people, who have already lost substantial numbers of neurons, are more likely to develop schizophrenia than are younger people.
49.  Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for ADHD, is likely to:
 Areduce the likelihood of activation of other neurons.
 Bimpair dopamine neurotransmission.
 Cincrease synaptic levels of dopamine.
 Ddecrease synaptic levels of dopamine.
 Eaggravate the behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
50.  The relatively poor ability of an autistic person to interact socially with others is likely due to
 Aa failure of activation of brain areas associated with face perception.
 Bdamage to the ascending visual pathways.
 Cvisual acuity problems.
 Denhanced activity within their orbitofrontal cortex.
 Ean infection involving the corpus callosum.
Section: EssaysThere are five essay questions (50 points). Note that essays may have more than one part requiring two-three answers per essay. Each essay question will be worth 10 points.  Use answer sheet document to enter answers 
51.  The brain is made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, each with many thousands of interconnections. There is communication both within these neurons and from one neuron to the next. First, describe these different forms of communication that explain how information is transmitted both (a) within the neuron and (b) between neurons. Then, discuss reasons and give examples why neuron communication is important to biopsychology.
52.  Historically, a significant controversy in the field of biopsychology was the question of how our behavior is a result of nature (biology, genetics, inheritance) or a result of nurture (the environment we grow up in). Today, this is an obsolete position and it is believed by most that there is an interaction among genetics and environment (or experience). The more accurate position is that “Behavior is a function of genetics, experience and current perception.” Discuss this statement, citing relevant experimental evidence, in the context of at least two of the following behaviors: visual perception, birdsong communication, learning, intelligence, aggression, obesity, personality, mental disorder (i.e., schizophrenia or depression or anxiety or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
53.  One of the most exciting findings in biopsychology is that the developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. It is known that the brains of preadolescent individuals are more plastic than those of adults. That is, they can recover from brain injury much more rapidly and completely than adults. First, describe what is meant by plasticity and the different kinds of plasticity that are possible. Then, discuss what factors might account for the differences of more rapid recovery from brain injury in preadolescents compared to adults
54.  Describe two of types of biological/brain evidence (neurodevelopmental, genetic, neurotransmitter, imaging) for (a) schizophrenia and (b) depression. Describe evidence for different biological treatments that are useful for (a) schizophrenia and (b) depression.  Your discussion for treatments might deal with how treatments target specific clinical symptoms and their brain action.
55.  Identify three contributors to the development of biopsychology. Describe the ideas and/or research that the person is famous for. Discuss the reasons that their contributions are important to the field of contemporary biopsychology.

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