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How would you relate association and causation? Are these terms the same thing?

Please answer the following questions in your own words to the best of your understanding. If you find evidence that is not from the Gordis text, please cite it in APA Style.

  1. An investigator examined cases of fetal death in 27,000 pregnancies and classified mothers according to whether they had experienced sexual intercourse within 1 month before delivery. It was found that 11% of the mothers of fetuses that died and 2.5% of the mothers of fetuses that survived had had sexual intercourse during the period. It was concluded that intercourse during the month preceding delivery caused the fetal deaths. What guideline(s) did this researcher fail to take into account? Why is the conclusion reached by the investigator incorrect? (3 pts)
  2. How would you relate association and causation? Are these terms the same thing? (3 pts)
  3. How could an epidemiological study prove causation? Other than the examples in the book, can you discuss another example of how an epidemiological study proved causation? (3 pts)
  4. Give examples of indirect and direct causation associated with experiences in everyday life. (3 pts)
  5. Give an example of a time you experienced what you thought was causation, but turned out to be confounding. This could be an event that has happened to you or a news story that demonstrated confounding. (3 pts)

Please remember to number your responses appropriately

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