Ethical and Cross-Cultural Standards
In previous weeks, you explored how psychological tests can be used for many purposes. They represent one of the most powerful methods for predicting human behavior, and they are widely incorporated into decision-making processes with profound effects on people’s lives. Test results can affect decisions about admission to educational programs, hiring decisions, and legal decisions, including such wide-ranging areas as competency, child custody, and parole. As with any technology used to make weighty decisions, there is great potential for abuse. This potential means that it is particularly important for those who create and use psychological tests to do so in an ethical manner.
This week, you explore the implications of test misuse. You also submit your test report, detailing the test instrument you constructed and the analysis of the Final Project dataset provided to you.
· Analyze implications of test misuse
· Apply psychometric principles to develop a psychological testing instrument
· Apply psychometric principles to the analysis of test data
· Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
. Chapter 18, “Ethical and Social Considerations in Testing”
· American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
. Chapter 6, “Test Administration, Scoring, Reporting and Interpretation”
. Chapter 7, “Supporting Documentation for Tests”
. Chapter 3, “Fairness in Testing”
. Chapter 8, “The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Takers”
. Chapter 9, “The Responsibilities of Test Users”
. Chapter 10, “Psychological Testing and Assessment”
. Chapter 12, “Educational Testing and Assessment”
. Chapter 11, “Workplace Testing and Credentialing”
· Cattell, R. B. (1979). Are culture fair intelligence tests possible and necessary? Journal of Research and Development in Education, 12(2), 3–13. Cattell, R. B., Are culture fair intelligence tests possible and necessary?, Journal of Research and Development in Education. Copyright 1979 Journal of Research and Development in Education. Used with permission from the College of Education, University of Georgia via the Copyright Clearance Center.
· Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (2004). Code of fair testing practices in education. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/programs/testing/fair-code.aspx.
· Rich, J., & Delgado, A. (2010). Measurement of vocational and educational aspiration and satisfaction among mental health clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 15(2), 91–98. Retrieved from http://www.psychosocial.com/IJPR_15/Vocational_Measurement_Rich.html.
· Sackett, P. R., Borneman, M. J., & Connelly, B. S. (2008). High stakes testing in higher education and employment: Appraising the evidence for validity and fairness. American Psychologist, 63(4), 215–227. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Thissen, D., Steinberg, L., & Gerrard, M. (1986). Beyond group-mean differences: The concept of item bias. Psychological Bulletin, 99(1), 118–128. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Zumbo, B. D. (2007). Three generations of DIF analyses: Considering where it has been, where it is now, and where it is going. Language Assessment Quarterly, 4(2), 223–233. Three generations of DIF analyses: Considering where it has been, where it is now, and where it is going. Language Assessment Quarterly, 4(2), by Zumbo, B. D. Copyright 2007 by TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. Reprinted by permission of TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Test ethics cover both the creation and use of tests. For this Discussion, you concentrate on the implications of test misuse. These can relate to test use with diverse groups, licensure issues, adverse impact, or test security, to name a few.
Some important basic ethical principles regarding testing are as follows:
· The construction of tests needs to be done using appropriate psychometric procedures, so that the test will provide valid measurement.
· When tests are used, they need to be properly selected. The test should be valid for the purpose used and should not be outdated. The selection should take into account the purpose of the testing and should also take the examinee’s language, culture, and disabilities into account.
· The test needs to be administered according to proper protocol in order to maintain standardization.
· The test needs to be interpreted and reported fairly, and the report needs to be stored properly. The responsible psychology professional should prevent misinterpretation and should prevent reporting that results in incorrect decisions or that causes the client unnecessary emotional harm. He or she should also protect the client’s confidentiality.
· Test givers must maintain the security of test materials. Many tests, such as the Wechsler intelligence tests or the MMPI, have been developed over a period of decades. Public familiarity with these tests would destroy their usefulness. Test publishers generally have standards controlling who can buy and use their tests.
· A test has an “adverse impact” when it results in substantially different employment decisions (e.g., hiring, promotion, termination) for one group vs. another group. This adverse impact is unlawful if there is no justification for it. For instance, some jobs might have tests of physical strength that result in fewer women being hired. The employer would need to demonstrate that physical strength is a legitimate job requirement.
To prepare for this Discussion, think of potential negative effects of tests not being administered, stored, or interpreted according to ethical principles. Consider the effects on both the individuals being tested and, potentially, the population at large.
With these thoughts in mind:
Post by Day 4 two potential effects of test misuse on individuals being tested and on the population at large. Support your answer with references to the APA Code of Ethics and other relevant standards.
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
Final Project: Test Report
For your Final Project, you create a test report describing the construction of your own test, combined with the results from your analysis of the provided dataset. See the week 1 project area for a full description of the assignment.
The Assignment (5–7 pages)
Submit your final test report. Your report should be 5–7 pages, not including abstract and references. In it, you should describe:
· The construction of your own test
· The results from your analysis of the provided dataset. Include validity, reliability, and factor analysis interpretation.
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