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Contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

Contemporary Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

(Readings/notes and student online activities)

Introduction

Welcome to 401206.   The unit will explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditional cultures and societies, contemporary perspectives and state of play within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, the importance of culture within a health context and the disparities that exist in health status between Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander populations. The unit aims to assist you to develop cultural capabilities and skills that will ensure Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people feel safe when engaging in mainstream health services.

Complete the Module 1 student online activities.  Read the notes, review the PowerPoint slides and then attempt the online quiz.

Learning Outcomes for Module 1

Upon successful completion of this Module, you should be able to:

Explain      the expectations of the 401206 unit

Describe   the Close the Gap campaign

Understand       the standards of practice for nurses and midwives in relation to         Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander people and the need to   deliver culturally competent care

Understand       key concepts associated with the development of nurses cultural     capabilities when engaging with Aboriginal and Torres Strait         Islander peoples

Understand       WSU protocols and terminology when working with Aboriginal and   Torres Strait Islander people

Recognise and apply ways of communicating and working with Aboriginal people      that are respectful

Module 1 is divided into four sections

Section 1:  Welcome to Country & Acknowledgement of Country

Section 2:  Appropriate Terminology

Section 3:  The Close the Gap campaign in Australia

Section 4:  Culturally safe healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

Please note: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should be aware that some of this content may contain images, voices or names of deceased persons in photographs, film, audio recordings or printed material.

Readings for Module 1:

Office       of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Engagement and Employment.     (nd). Guidelines for the use of terminology relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait        Islander peoples

Prime        Ministers Report.  Close the Gap 2019.

NSW         Health (2004). Communicating    positively. A guide to appropriate Aboriginal terminology.

N.B. These weekly readings are incorporated into the notes and activities in this module workbook.  Complete the Module 1 student online activities, read the notes, review the PowerPoint slides and then attempt the online quiz.

Student                    Activity 1:  Reflect and write : When you think                  about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health what comes to                 mind? 







Section 1:  Welcome to Country & Acknowledgement of Country

It is important to familiarize ourselves with two important yet distinct protocols, a ‘Welcome to Country’ and an ‘Acknowledgement of Country’ in terms of what they are, why they are important and who can perform them.

Student                    Activity 2: Access                      the following link to Office                       of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Employment &                   Engagement (OATSIEE) and make some notes on:                                                         Welcome                         to Country and                           Acknowledgement                            of Country 

Student                    Activity 3:  Reflect and write : What are your thoughts about Welcome to Country and                  Acknowledgement of Country? 

Section 2:  Appropriate Terminology

Student                    Activity 3: Access                      the following link Office                         of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander peoples (OATSIEE) and write down the definition of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait                 person 



The                   tutorial introduced you to some appropriate terminology when                         engaging with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.The                         following document offers some further guidance.  Access the                         following link and read pages 4-5 of New                   South Wales Department of Health (2004) – Communicating                 positively:  A guide to appropriate Aboriginal terminology List                         terms associated                 with Aboriginal communities and terms not to be used when referring to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                         peoples. 













It                      is important for non-Aboriginal people to recognise that the                         language used when referring to Aboriginal and Torres Strait                         Islander people has implications.  Always ask or seek advice from                 the local Traditional Owner or Aboriginal Land Council                        organisation about the preferred terminology specific to your                      workplace, organisation, town, state, etc. Student                       Activity 4:  Reflect and write: Who                   do you think you are? 





Section 3:  The Close the Gap campaign in Australia

Australia has a quality of life that is one of the best in the world, but for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people this is not the case.  ‘Gaps’ exist between the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal people.  The ‘Close the Gap’ campaign is a human-rights based campaign lead by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to end health inequality by 2030. The ‘Close the Gap’ campaign launched measurable targets, the aim being to eliminate health inequalities by 2030.  Seven targets were identified.

Student                    Activity 4: Access                      the link to the Prime                 Ministers Report – Closing the Gap 2019 Go                        to pages 10 and make a note of the seven identified targets and                        progress against them 
1.                      2.                      3.                      4.                      5.                      6.                      7.                       (The                         current Close the Gap (2019) Prime Ministers Report states that 2                   of the targets are on track)

Section 4:  Culturally safe healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

There is evidence that racism and discrimination exist in mainstream health services and as a result can be unsafe for Aboriginal people.  This has now been acknowledged by the Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) Codes of Conduct for Nurses and Midwives (2018). The codes have been revised to incorporate specific guidelines to address this issue.  Cultural competency frameworks have been introduced into education programs for future health professionals, such as registered nurses and midwives, to address individual and institutional racism and unconscious/conscious bias.  Key concepts are incorporated into a framework created by Juli Coffin and these are defined below.

Cultural awarenessAn attitude that                         includes awareness about differences between cultures.
Cultural safetyInvolves actions that                  recognise, respect and value the unique cultural identity of a                        person and safely meet their needs, expectations and rights. It                  means working from the cultural perspective of the other person,                 not from your own perspective.  Practitioners are                        self-reflexive/self-aware with regard to their position of power                      and the impact of this role in relation to patients. Health                       practitioners need to examine their attitudes and beliefs with                  regards to Aboriginal and Torres Strat Islander people.  “Safety”                    is defined by those who receive the service, not those who provide                     it (Coffin, 2007; CATSINaM, 2017).
BrokerageThe deliberate use of                 culturally competent strategies to bridge or mediate between the                  patient’s culture and the biomedical health care system.   Central                         to cultural security is brokerage.  It requires a two-way                        communication where both parties are equally informed, equally                   respected and equally important in the discussion (Coffin, 2007).
Cultural ProtocolsThese                        exist as standards of behaviour used by people to show respect to                 one another.                      Cultural                     protocol refers to the customs, lore and codes of behaviour of a                       particular cultural group and a way of conducting business. It                   also refers to the protocols and procedures used to guide the                     observance of traditional knowledge and practices, including how                         traditional knowledge is used, recorded and disseminated (Coffin,                         2007).
Cultural securityCultural security                         processes include brokerage, protocols and resource allocation to                   embed cultural security in organisations and health systems in a                 sustainable manner (Coffin, 2007).
Student                    Activity 5: This                 activity will assist you to structure a critical reflection. 
We                   will be discussing Student Activity 5 in the tutorial so dont                         worry about it at this stage.  Just start thinking about what                         critical reflective writing in this unit is about.  Have a look at                      the  rubrics in the Learning Guide which will be used to mark your                 reflective assessments. 
Identify                     an issue/topic in the Module 1 and critically reflect over it. Use                        the following sequence based on Gibbs reflective Cycle to guide                     your writing. 
Gibbs                        (1988)                                               The                   ‘issue’ that you select may relate to one of the topics listed                  below or something else that has caught your attention/effected                   how you think about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people                        and their health.                                                The                   following are some possible areas on which to base a reflection,                    but you need to decide which ones are relevant to you, what has                   impacted you?                                                    Something                                 your heard in the lecture?                                What                                 do you think about Welcome to Country and Acknowledgement of                                 Country?                                                            Why                                 do you think health disparities are experienced by some                           Aboriginal people?                                                             Why                                 is terminology important?                                                                 Is                             it important to make healthcare culturally safe for Aboriginal                               people? Description: 




Feelings: 




Critical                     Evaluation: 



Analysis                   and conclusion: 



Action                      plan: 









 
 

References

CATSINaM (2017)  Position Statement:  Embedding Cultural Safety across Australian Nursing and Midwifery (accessed 11/02/2019) http://catsinam.org.au/static/uploads/files/embedding-cultural-safety-accross-australian-nursing-and-midwifery-may-2017-wfca.pdf

Coffin, J. (2007). Rising to the challenge in Aboriginal health by creating cultural security. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, 31 (3), 22-24.

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. [London]: FEU.

NSW Health (2004). Communicating positively. A guide to appropriate Aboriginal terminology. Access 11/2/19 from

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/aboriginal/Pages/pub-terminology.aspx

Nursing Midwifery Board of Australia, Code of Conduct for Midwives (2018).  Accessed 11/2/19 from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx

Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Engagement and Employment (OATSIEE) (nd). Definitions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (accessed 11/02/2019)

https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/oatsiee/aboriginal_and_torres_strait_islander_employment_and_engagement/workplace_relations/cultural_protocols

Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Engagement and Employment (OATSIEE) (nd). Guidelines for the use of terminology relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (accessed 11/02/2019)

https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/oatsiee/aboriginal_and_torres_strait_islander_employment_and_engagement/workplace_relations/cultural_protocols

Prime Ministers Report (2018).  Closing the Gap.  Accessed 11/2/19 from http://closingthegap.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/ctg-report-2018.pdf?a=1

Prime Ministers Report (2019).  Closing the Gap.  Accessed 15/2/19 from

https://www.pmc.gov.au/news-centre/indigenous-affairs/closing-gap-2019-report

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